Egg

How Do Chickens Make Eggs?

Eggs are one of the most versatile foods around. They can be the protagonist of the show (omelette, quiche), the supporting role of other ingredients (Thai fried noodles, spaghetti and bacon), or the hidden hero who makes cakes or softens the soufflé.

Although they are ubiquitous in the culinary world, the process by which eggs are formed in the hen's body is not widely understood.

Eggs develop through multiple stages in the hen's body. The egg yolk is wrapped in the egg white and protective film, sealed in the shell and coated with quick-drying protective liquid.

This page will help you find answers to some of the most common questions about how eggs are formed in a hen.

How are eggs produced?

There are thousands of small eggs in the ovaries of laying hens, which are the yolks of the future. Birds are unique among animals because only one ovary (left side) matures to the stage of releasing eggs.

When the egg yolk is ready, it moves out of the ovary and enters the fallopian tube-a tubular structure divided into different parts. Four hours later, the egg yolk passes through an area of ​​the fallopian tube called a magnum, where egg white protein is added.

There are many different proteins that make up egg whites. The different protein layers provide protection for the egg yolk and create a template for the formation of the shell membrane and shell.

After quickly passing through the part of the isthmus where the shell membrane fibers are produced, the egg enters the shell gland where it forms a shell for about 20 hours. This process is called calcification because a layer of calcium carbonate is added to form the outer shell.

After quickly passing through the part of the isthmus where the shell membrane fibers are produced, the egg enters the shell gland where it forms a shell for about 20 hours. This process is called calcification because a layer of calcium carbonate is added to form the outer shell.

In the last two hours of shell formation, a large amount of pigment (white or brown) will be produced and deposited in the outer layer of the shell. This includes laying a cuticle to prevent bacteria that may try to penetrate the egg shell and potential moisture loss from the egg contents.

Then, the egg rotates before laying, laying the big end first and passing the small end of the fallopian tube first.

Parts of an Egg

  • Yolk. This is the most visible part of the egg content-the yellow part near the center.
  • Albumen. This is the transparent part we call the egg white. It is called this because it will turn white when cooked. There are two layers of egg whites: thick (near the yolk) and thin.
  • Chalaza. Located in the thick protein, the lace is just tightly twisted protein. It keeps the yolk in the middle of the egg and prevents it from sticking to the inside of the shell.
  • Shell membranes. The contents of the egg are surrounded by two films called inner shell membrane and outer shell membrane.
  • Shell. This is the shell of the egg, which holds everything together.

How a Hen Makes an Egg

Eggs are formed in the reproductive tract of female chickens and are called hens. The reproductive tract is divided into two main parts: ovaries and fallopian tubes. The ovary is where the egg yolk is added. When the yolk reaches the right size, it is released from the ovary through a process called ovulation. The released egg yolk is then picked up by the funnel. Must be fertilized here. Then the egg yolk goes into the magnum, where the egg whites are added. Then it continues into the isthmus to add the shell membrane. The developing egg spends most of its time in the shell glands, where the shell and any shell pigments are added. When the egg is assembled, it first moves down the small end of the fallopian tube. In the vagina, it is first pushed out of the big end. This prevents the eggs from being contaminated by feces during laying.

Do chickens lay eggs all year round?

Adult hens need about 14 hours of daylight to lay eggs continuously, and different lighting programs are used depending on the breeding system, geographic location and season. Different farming systems include room perimeter fences that use natural light and enclosed sheds that mainly use artificial lighting procedures.

Most commercial farms use artificial lighting to some extent to achieve consistent spawning levels throughout the year.

How long does the hen lay eggs?

Hen breeds used in commercial egg farming begin to lay eggs at approximately 16-18 weeks (four months) of age.

The first batch of eggs laid by a hen at this age is relatively small, about 45-50 grams. But in about three months, the egg size increased to an average of 60 grams.

Commercial laying hens continue to produce first-class eggs until they are about one and a half years old. After that, they have fewer eggs and lower shell quality, leading to more cracks and ruptures.

Do chickens need roosters to lay eggs?

A common misconception is that if there is no rooster around, the hen cannot lay eggs.

Commercial egg farms do not have roosters, and hens lay unfertilized eggs.

It takes about 24-26 hours for a hen to lay eggs. After laying eggs, the whole process will restart in about 30 minutes.

The only reason for raising roosters in a group of hens is to produce fertilized eggs as part of the breeding program. This process takes place in a professional hatchery, not an egg farm.